1856-8, r





Entomological Papers ; being chiefly Descriptions of New Ceylon Coleoptera,

with observations on their habits, &c. By J. Nietner, Esq. ... ... !

Description of New and Little known Species of Ceylon Nudibranchiate

Molluscs, and Zoophytes. By E. F. Kelaart, M.D., F.L.S., &c. ... 84

Account of the Works of Irrigation constructed by King Prakrama Bahoo, contained in the Sixty-eighth and Seventy -ninth Chapters of the Maha Wanso, with Introductory Remarks. By Louis de Zoysa, Esq., Modliar 140 I

Topographical and Statistical Account of the District of Noowerakalawiya.

By A. Oswald Brodie, Esq. ... ... ... ... "...150^

On the Principles of Singhalese Chronology. By the Rev. C. Alwis ... 18 P

Remarks on the supposed identity between Nagasena and Nagarjuna. By

James De Alwis, Esq., Assistant Secretary ... ... ... 195

An Introductory Paper on the investigation of Singhalese Music. By Louis \ Nell, Esq. ... ... ... ... ... ... ...200 J

A Synopsis of the Saiva Siddantam. By M. Coomarasamy, Esq., Advocate... 207

Terms of Address and Modes of Salutation in use amongst the Singhalese.

By James De Alwis, Esq., Assistant Secretary ... ... ...219 I

Appendix: Proceedings of Meetings, &c. ... ... ... ... i. |












So. 9. 1850 58


Entomological Paperd, being chiefly Descriptions of Ceylon Coleoptera, with observations on their habits, &c. By J. NiETisER, Esq. ... ... 1

Description of new and little-known Species of Ceylon Nudibranchiate Molluscs, and Zoophytes. By E. F. Kelaart, Esq., M.D. ... ... 70

Account of the Works of Irrigation constructed by King Parakrama Bahu, contained in the G8th and 79th Chapters of the Mahawanso, with Introductory Remarks. By L. De ZOYSA, Mudaliyar ... ... ... ... 125

Topographical and Statistical Account of the District

of Nuwarakalawiya. —By A. 0. Brodie, Esq. ... 13G

tfo. 10.— 1850-58.

On the Principles of Sinhalese Chronology. By the

Rev. C. ALW1S ... ... 1G;>

Remarks on the Supposed Identity between Nagascna and Nagarjuna. By James De Alwis, Esq., Assistant Secretary ... ... ... 17G

An Introductory Paper on the Investigation of

Sinhalese Music. By LOUIS Nell, Esq. ... 181

A Synopsis of the " Saiva Siddantam." By M.

COOMARASAMY, Esq., Advocate ... ... 187

Terms of Address and Modes of Salutation in use amongst the Sinhalese. By James De Alwis, Esq., Assistant Secretary ... ... 198

APPENIDX :— Proceedings of Meetings, &c. ... i

No. 11.-185859.*

The Laws of the Buddhist Priesthood. By the Rev, D. J. GOGLRLY

* Pases 253-276 bare been wrongly numbered 1-21.

( iv )


Notes on the Mythological Legends of the Sinhalese.

By J. DE ALWLS, Esq., Assistant Secretary 262

A Statistical Enquiry into the state of Crime in Ceylon.— By J. Capper, Esq., Honorary Se- cretary ... ... ... ... 293

Sinhalese Rhetoric. By J. De AlwIS, Esq., Assis- tant Secretary ... ... ... 308

Scripture Botany of Ceylon. By W. Ferguson, Esq, 316

Remarks on the Supposed identity between Nagar- juna and Nagas^na. By J. De Alwis, Esq., Assistant Secretary ... ... ... 346

Expenditure on Public Works in Ceylon. By J.

Capper, Esq., Honorary Secretary ... ... 354

Appendix: Proceedings of Meetings ... ... i

Society's Circular ... ... ... xii

Correspondence concerning the Mauritius Exhi- bition ... ... ... ..." xiv

Correspondence with the Society of Arts ... xv

No. 12.-1860-61.

Health and Disease in Ceylon.— By BOYD MOSS, Esq.,

F.R.c.S. ... ... ... ... 361

Cinnamon.— By JAMES D'ALWIS, Esq. ... ... 372

Notes on the District of Badulla and its Natural Products.— By W. C. Ondatjie, Esq., Assistant Colonial Surgeon ... ... ... 381

The Difference between the Pali and the Prakrit- Magadhi of Vararuchi.— By JAMES D'ALWIS, Assistant Secretary ... ... ... 429

On Health and Diet, with especial reference to Children and Youths in Ceylon. By BARCROFT Boake, B.A., Vice-President, Asiatic Society, Ceylon ... ... ... ... 434

APPENDIX : Proceedings of Meetings, &c. ... i

Letters from Sir J. E, Tennent and Dr, Buist to the A-thenceum, relative to the Fresh Water Wells of Jaffna xi

J 0 TJ R N A L





Entomological Papers ; being chiefly Descriptions of New Ceylon Coleoptera, with such Observations on their habits, Sfc3 as appear in any way interesting. By J. NiETNEK, Esq., Member of the Society of Naturalists of Berlin, Entomological Society of Stettin, (Nos. I. IV. reprinted.)

No. I.

Introductory Note on the publication of New Species under disadvantages such as describing entomologists necessarily labour under in countries remote from the European centres of science.

I little doubt that the following descriptions of new Coleoptera will meet with anything but approbation from the entomological world at home. As, however, in spite of this anticipation of an ungracious reception, I do not for the present intend to desist from my purpose of publishing such descriptions, I may as well try to vindicate this measure by setting forth the reasons which induce me to consider the difficulties which beset the path of the entomological author in this country as not insurmountable.

The objections raised against me will be these: consider- ing the state entomological literature is still in, that is to say, considering that it has not, generally speaking, been condensed into a certain limited and obtainable number of 0 1857. b

21 Descriptions of New

volumes, as is the case in the higher branches of Zoology and Botany ; that, on the contrary, the bulk of it consists of fragments which float without order in the misty and un- fathomable ocean of scientific journals ; it is next to impossible that an individual entomologist abroad should surround him- self with this shapeless mass of learning, and keep himself by this or other means, so well informed of the details of the actual progress of the science, as not to be exposed to mistakes of one kind or another, but more especially to creating syno- nymy in attempting to work independently. It will further be said against me, that not having the facilities and the wholesome check which arise from the diligent use of extensive and well named collections, not even having the gratification of a brother entomologist's views and opinions on doubtful cases, it will be impossible even to determine whether an insect be new or not ; and from these reasons (the resume will be) entomologists abroad should confine themselves to collecting and observing the habits of the objects of their attention, but they should never go to print with matters on which it is an impossibility for the ablest among them to be quite compe- tent. These arguments are unfortunately too true, but still, I think, admit of being mitigated sufficiently to come to final conclusions less disheartening to the entomological student abroad, than the above.

First of all, every entomologist gives preference to a certain order of insects say Coleoptera and in this even, in almost all cases, to one or two particular families. In study- ing for the publication of new species, under the disadvantages just mentioned, he will confine himself to this order, or perhaps family. Now, although as objected above, the information existing on this particular branch, is for the most part frag- mentary, still there are certain families, on which it has received a tangible shape, through condensation by old hands r Burmcister's Lamellicornia, Dejean's Carabidre, Erichson's

Ceylon Coleoptera. Spe, 3

Staphy linkup, Sehoenherr's CuiTuKonida?, Boheman's Cassidsej, Westwood's Paussida?, etc.. as well as the latter author's general work on the families, and Lacordaire's on the genera Coleopteroruin. diligently consulted, go as guides a long way, and should, although some of them have by the rapid progress of the science, grown rather antiquated, guard against a number of inistake-s of a systematic nature, As to whether a beetle be new or not, I admit, that in forming an opinion on this question, the entomologist, situated as above, will have quite as much to be guided by a certain tact (not clearly definable, but understood by scientific men) than by anything else: and I am forced to concede, that under any circumstances almost, it is totally impossible to arrive at an indisputable cer- tainty either the one way or the other. This, however, ex- cludes by no means the possibility of his forming an opinion with so much precision as to enable him to pronounce in the matter with a very high degree cf confidence, and all probability in his favour. In attempting to come to a decision on this difficult point, he will receive a first superficial idea, from careful reflection on certain accidental circumstances, such as size, scarcity, or other peculiarities of the insect in question. This idea, whichever way it may incline, will then either gain or lose in strength by diligent reference to his library, until at length, with a certain amount of tact and judgment, he will arrive at a result, which under such circumstances, must carry much weight with it. I shall illustrate this case by an example: If,for instance, after collecting five years in Ceylon generally, and in the Western Province more especially, I find at the latter place an insect say the Chlaenius pulcher described below for the first time am I not entitled to consider it as very scarce ? If on consulting my library I discover nothing which can possibly refer to it ( finding that not a single Chlamius is marked as occurring in Ceylon), are not the chances greatly in favour of its being an undescribeel


Descriptions of New

species?* If again, I collect beetles as small and inconspicuous as the Trichopteryx described below, and consider at the same time, that, although they are in certain localities of common occurrence, no professional Coleopterologist has ever collected before me in this Island; if, moreover, again my library offers nothing that could possibly refer to them individually (there being hardly an Asiatic species mentioned), am I not under these circumstances justified in considering them as un- described ? Decidedly. Circumstances like these would in- deed be altogether conclusive, if there was not a chance of the beetle's occurring in some neighbouring country, and its having thence found its way into the normal collections of Europe. The possibility of such being the case, enhances the difficulties of the case, of course., very materially ; and I am forced to admit, that the means of overcoming them are very unreliable. One deficiency descriptions of new species furnished under these circumstances will almost always have,

* Synonymy is, and always will be, an unavoidable evil to which descriptive science is liable under any circumstances. My arguments are merely intended to uphold the possibility to reduce it to such a na- ture, and to limit it to so small an extent, as to be of little importance if weighed against the merits the publications in which it occurs may be possessed of in other respects, and, therefore, to be pardonable. In case, however, I should eventually ascertain that I am mistaken on this point, I shall then abandon my pursuits, or at all events, my present mode of following them up. I feel certain, that every enthusiastic naturalist, who has travelled in foreign parts, will support my cause, and understand and appreciate my striving to become the herald of my own discoveries.

I am well aware, that there is more than one way to attain this end, and that the one I have selected is perhaps not the best ; but circumstances have hitherto barred me from those upon which I might lay myself less open to censure. In positions like mine only, where they are my prin- cipal support, books are well tested ; and whoever has tested them under such circumstances, will know that much of the synonymy created abroad, is referrible to them, and not to the student.

Ceylon Coleoptera, Sfc.


namely the comparison (so desirable, if not essential, in large genera) with another allied and known species, will be wanting ; but this stands or falls with the system from which it is inseparable.

I think I have said enough to shew, that the disadvantages the entomologist encounters here, or in other places similarly situated, in conscientiously attempting to publish new species may (his principal assistance being perseverance, a good li- brary, and tact entomological instinct I am almost tempted to call it) I am far from saying entirely, be overcome so far as to expose him, from want of resources in the execution of his plan, to no more mistakes than entomologists expose them- selves to under more favourable circumstances from neglecting them. But I am not satisfied with obtaining the simple grant of permission to describe on the spot a part of what he collects. I claim more for the entomologist abroad : I wish to show that he should naturally be expected, nay desired, to do so ; for although he labours under distressing disad- vantages in some respects, he happily enjoys a proportionate share of advantages in others. It is unsatisfactory in the extreme for an enthusiastic entomologist to be obliged to let his collectings go out of his own hands, see others reap the honors from them, which are to be reaped on such occa- sions, or perhaps see as it were a gulf close over them, hear no more of them, and find himself forgotten. For what is a mere collector? Let him display as much industry as possible, he is hardly looked upon as an entomologist, cer- tainly, as long as he is prevented from publishing anything, not as a scientific one. Now, if such a man merely desists from publishing the fruits of his researches from want of re- sources to assist him to go creditably through such a task, if he suffers his collections to go out of his hands, because he is too true a lover of science not to see the credit in a great mea- sure due to himself reaped rather by another than to hoard


Descriptions of Netv

up his entomological treasures, a useless heap, eventually to be destroyed by moths and time: I say, that a man who acts upon principles like those, finds himself not seldom dishear- tened in the prosecution of his studies under difficulties such as I have set forth. If, however, as I have endeavoured to point out, these difficulties can be overcome to a very consi- derable extent, is anything more natural than that he should be the herald of his discoveries himself? Could anything be more unkind and ungenerous on the part of his scientific brethren at home, than to oppose and discourage him by their disapprobation ? I might enlarge on this subject, which has been a sore one with me for a long time, to a great extent, but I think this is sufficient to direct the reader into the train of my ideas and to enable him to follow it up.

I hasten therefore to conclude. As mentioned above, the Tropical entomologist has a proportionate share of advantages to balance what falls to his lot of the contrary ; one of these advantages which he has over his brethren at home is, that he has an opportunity of seeing and studying alive what can at home only be examined in a state differing more or less from that of life. Therefore, if he is enabled and expected to describe new species, it is moreover highly desirable for the sake of the promulgation of sound information, that he should do so, that he should avail himself of this, his principal ad- vantage, and describe, fresh from nature, as many of his fa- vourites and their habits as possible ; and discouraging him in such an undertaking on any of the above grounds would be discouraging the progress of science in general.

Ceylon Coleoptera, Sfe.


L Chl^E-NIUS pulcher. N.

C. elongates, subcdnvexus, subglabratus, ceneo-viridis, elytris ob~ scurioribus, limbo pedibusque ilavis, subtus piceus. Long. corp. 6| lin.

Caput oblongum nitidissimum, ante oculos 2-impressum. Mentum dente fortiter excavate Antenna? art. quarto sesqui longiore. Thorax obcordatus basi angustatus quadratus, latitudine antica quarta parte longior, parce punctulatus, antice lateribus deflexus, postice dorsoque planus, basi 2-impressus. Elytra striata, ad strias, prsecipue apicem versus, subtilissime pilosa, flavo -margin ata. Pedes (lavi, spinuliscastaneis, Abdomen flavo-marginatum.

Specimen singulum m. in ripis Mahse-Oyae iluvii prope Xegombo cepi.

Distinguished by its elongate shape. The head is of a bright green colour with the lahrum and the mandibles of a deep, and the antenna? and palpi of a light brown, the latter being darkened towards the end. The thorax is of the same colour as the head, reflecting a copper hue from the back, its anterior angles are obtuse, the basal ones being right. The elytra are of the same greenish copper colour but darker, they are impressed with longitudinal lines, which are bordered on each side by a row of minute hairs. They as well as the abdomen have yellowish margins.

2. CiiLiENius rugidosus. N.

C. subconvexus, subglabratus, thorace occipiteque rugulosis cupreis, elytris nigro-viridibus, pedibus, elytrorum limbo lunulisque apicalibus flavis, subtus piceus, abdomine apice margineque Ilavis. Long. corp. 6! lin.

Caput fronte 2-impressum, subtilissime longitudinaliter rugulosum. Menti dens laciniis extus rotund atis. Thorax ovatus basi quadratus, lateribus valde deflexus, postice obsolete 2-impressus, parce punctatus, subtiliter transversim rugulosus. Elytra striata, striis apicem versus per paiia coeunsibus, ad strias pilosa, apice utrinque lunula ilava signata.

8 Descriptions of New

Pectus abdomenque picea, hoc segmentis 2 ultimis, praecedento dimidio niargineque flavis.

Specimen unicum f. ubi prsecedentem cepi.

The head finely longitudinally, the thorax transversely rugose ; the latter with rounded and deflexed sides. The mandibles are of deep brown, the palpi and antenna? of yellowish colour darkened towards the tip. The lobes of the mentum tooth are externally rounded. The elytra are marked by two subapical spots of yellowish colour and semilunar shape, (the back of the lunula? being turned towards the suture.) The stria? verge near the apex by twos into each other. The abdomen is distinguished by having a yellow margin and apex.

3. Scarites minor.

S. elongatus, niger, nitidus, subtus nigro piceus, pedibus piceis, tarsis, antennis palpisque castaneis. Long, corp, 5 lin. lat. 1% lin.

Caput subquadratum, ante oculos 2-impressum, pone oculos irregular- it er sulcatulum. Mandibular valida; inter medium et basin fortiter dilatatse, obtuse dentatoa, dextera dente obtuso subapicali, supra sub- tusque longitudinaliter sulcata;. Antenna; art. sequentium trium-, tertii prope longitudine. Thorax oblongo-quadratus, angulis anteri- oribus obtusis, posterioribus oblique truncatis. Elytra thoracis capitis- que prope longitudine, striata, ante medium ad striam 2m uni-, apicem versus ad striam 3^ 2 -punctata, punctis piliferis, basi granulata, angulis oblique-truncatis. Pedes anteriores tibiis apice extus 5 dentatis, dentibus 2 ultimis parvis, omnes tarsis subtus leviter excavatis.

In prov. occid. arenis humidis sub vegetab. putrescent, specimina nonnulla legi.

Scarce, but little distinguished excepting by its small size. The head is subquadrate, in front with two deep longitudinal impressions, behind the eyes finely sulcated. The labrum is of the usual shape, the eyes are not very prominent ; the an- tenna? are of about the same length as the head, the first joint is about as long as the three following together, the second, which

Ceylon Cohopiera, Sfc. 9

is generally longer than the third, is in this case ol the same length, joints 1-4 are naked, 5-11 pilose, increasing towards the tip gradually in size and thickness, taking at the same time a subquaclratic and depressed shape. The mandibles are strong, much dilated and dentated from before the middle to the base, the right one having an additional subapical tooth. The maxilla? also are strong, but slightly bent at the apex, where they are also slightly excavated. The labial palpi have the last joint longer than the third elongated and elliptic. The thorax is oblong, with the basal angles obliquely truncated. The elytra are oval, striated, granulated at the base, and have, as has also the thorax, a narrow margin. The anterior tarsi are furnished externally with 5 teeth, the two last ones of which, however, are very small, the posterior legs are simi- larly provided, but the teeth are indistinct. The joints of the tarsi are slightly excavated below. The sides of the body below are rugose.

4. Clivina rugosifrons, N*

C. ferruginea, capite, tliorace abdomineque piceis. Long. corp. 4^ lin. lat. ]i lin.

Caput rugosum, inter oculos elevatum, elevatione plana antice profunde l-impressa. Mentum lobis subtiliter sulcatis. Antennae robustaa tho^ racis medium vix attingentes, art. ultimo elongato penultimo-, art. 2o tertio sesqui longiore. Thorax subquadratus antice parum angustatus, elytrorum latitudine, subtus parce punctatus, prosterno sulcato. Elytra striata, in striis punctata. Pedes tibiis anterioribus apice extus 4 dentatis, subtus excavatis, reliquis fortiter spinosis, tarsis articulis margine apicali setoso.

In prov. occid. sub vegetab. putrescent, infrequentissiine legi.

A large and distinguished species. The head is very rugose, the clypeus is contracted behind the apical angles, and then produced again into another pair of angles. The labrum is transverse, slightly sinuated in front, with the angles rounded and setose* The mentum is quadrate, the lobes rounded at

1857. c


Descriptions of New

the apex and slightly sulcated, the tootli is strong, of equal length with lobes and of the typical spearheaded form. The ligula has the apical angle much elongated, terminating in a membranaceous bristle which is bifurcate at the tip. The maxillary palpi have the last joint elongate, cylindrico- conic; that of the labial ones is still more elongate, elliptic. The antennas have the basal joints elongate, those towards the tip rounded. They and the legs are hairy, otherwise the insect is of a bright polished surface.

5, Clivina elongatula. K

C. elongata, subdepressa, supra nigro-picea, subtus pieea, pedibus elytrorumque margine castaneis, antennis oreque dilutioribus. Long, corp. vix 3 lin. lat. § lin.

Caput triangulare, subtiliter punctato-rugosum. Palpi articulo ultimo apice leviter truncato. Thorax oblonge quadratus, infra apiceni leviter sinuosus, parce obsoleteque transversim strigosus. Elytra striata, in striis punctata, ad striam 8m utrinque 4 punctata. Subtus parce punctata,

Ubi prcecedentem frequenter legi.

I have not dissected the labium of this species, which, how- ever, is at once recognised by its depressed, and, in proportion to its width, very long shape. The labrum, antennas and legs are so much like those of the former, that they need no further description,

6. Clivina maculata. K

C. picea, elytris ferrugineis infra medium macula nigra obsolet ornatis, pedibus intermed. et post, oreque brunneo-testaceis, pedibus ant. antennisque obscurioribus. Long. corp. 2 lin.

Caput oblonge quadratum, rugosum, costis 5 magis minusve interrupts ad marginem anteriorem in dentes 4 productis munitum. Palpi art. ulti- mo basi intus incrassato. Antennae- art. 2-3 subaequalibus. Thorax sub- quadratus leviter rotundatus. Elytra striata in striis profunde punctata,

Ubi praecedentes specimen singulum legi.

As distinguished as the preceding two species. The palpi and the mentum appear to me of a somewhat extraordinary

Ceylon Coleoptera, §*c.


form. The last joint of the former is considerably and more inflated at the base than in any other Ceylon species that has hitherto come under my notice, whilst the others are of a very curved appearance in both the maxillary and labial palpi. The insect is however, easily distinguished by its general fades, which is rather like that of a Dyschirius, from which genus, however, the mentum alone is sufficient to separate it. I may as well remark here, that, although the Island is well supplied with Scarites and Clivinas, I have hitherto not discovered a single Dyschirius, a genus so well represented in Europe. Of the three Clivinas just described, single specimens only have been in my possession for a considerable time. There are three or four more species met with about Colombo, but these being of common occurrence, I abstain from describing them here, . as they may possibly be amongst those described by Putzeys or others from the Indian continent,

7. CEdichikus alatus. N.

(E. alatus, setosus, nitidus, rufo-testacens, thorace dilutiore, capite, clytris abdominisque segmentis 3 ultimis nigris ; elytris apice 2-niaculatis, maculis rufo-testaceis; pedibus llavis, femoribus apice tibiisque basi nigrescentibus ; antennis palpisque maxill. basi obscuris, apice testaceis, reliquis oris partibus rufo-piceis. Long, corp. 3| lih.

(E. psederino Er. simiilimus, pra3ter colorum distributionem differt tamen alis, elytrorum antennarumque articuli ultiini sculptura. An- tennae art. ultimo penultimo aequali nisi paulo minore, apice fortiter truncate leviterque excavate. Thorax (E. psederini, dorso punctis biseriatim impressus, serie interna vel centrali elliptica punctis minori- bus magis inter se approxiniatis, externa vel submarginali punctis niagnis distantibus. Elytra oblonge subquadrata, infra medium rotund ata, thorace longiora et duplo fere ampliora (utr unique elytron thoracis fere magnitudine), basi parte thoracis adjacente duplo-, infra medium illius latitudine antica plus tcrtia parte latiora. Os, pedes et abdomen (E pEederini,

Paederorum more victitare vidctur ; in eorum societate in lacus Colomb- ensis ripis infrequentissime legi ; illis minus gracilis atque minus agiiis


Descriptions of New

I have not had an opportunity of examining specimens of either of the three (Edichiri hitherto described. However, I have before me Erichson's figure and description of the Sicilian (E. paederinus, with which I find my species strongly to agree. It differs, however, from the former materially in the following three points, viz. the wings, the sculpture of the wing-covers, and the last antennal joint. The fact that this species has wings, would render an alteration in Erichson's diagnosis of the genus necessary, it being characterized therein as apterous. The elytra are not so much contracted and rounded at the base, and, being longer than the thorax, have therefore a more ob- long, subquadratic appearance. As in the above typical species, they are, however, rounded at the sides and broadset a little below the middle. They are about twice as broad at the base as the adjoining part of the thorax ; and in their broadest part rather more than a third broader than the tho- rax in its. The third point, in which the two species differ, is the last joint of the antenna?, which, in this case, is strongly truncated at the tip and slightly excavated. They are further distinguished by the distribution of the colours, my species being of a dark yellowish red, thorax lighter, head, elytra and three last abdominal segments black, elytra with two reddish spots at the apex, legs yellowish, at the apex of the femora and base of the tibia? blackish, the mouth is brown, the maxill. palpi yellowish with the three first joints dark at the base, the antennae have the six basal joints dark excepting at the apex, where they, as well as the five remaining ones, are yellowish. In all other points I find the insect to agree entirely with the typical (E. pasderinus : the palpi, legs, and anal segment of abdomen are of the same structure, the hairy vestiture is ex- actly the same in the different parts of the body of my species as it is in the corresponding ones of Erichson's.

Ceylon Coleoptera,


No. II.

I. Anciiista, n. g. N. (fam. Carabim;, trib. Lebiid^e.)

Corpus depression, ovatum. Caput magnum, oculis mediocribus,semi- globosis, prominulis. Mentum dente magno obtuso, lobis parum breviore, his extus rotundatis, apice acuminatis. Palpi robusti, maxillares art. ultimo magno ovato, apice obtuso, labiales art. ultimo valde securiformi. Ligula cornea apice obtuse acuminata, labri marginem anteriorem attin- gens. (Paraglossas mihi adhuc non dissectEe.) Labrum transversim quad_ ratum. Mandibular simplices apice arcuatse et acuminata?. Antennae robustse thoracis basin attingentes, art. lo mediocri, brevi, 3o quarto paulo longiore, 4-10 subsequalibus, 11° penultimo parum longiore. Thorax longitudine latior, angulis anticis rotundatis, medio obsolete angulatus, basi angustatus, quadratus. Elytra apice quadrate truncata. Pedes robusti tarsis art. 4o profunde bilobo, unguibus fortiter pectinatis.

8. AxciriSTA modesta.

A brunneo-testacea, elytris Cmaculis 2 obsoletis subhumeralibus ex- ceptis) obscurioribus, oculis nigris, abdomine .piceo. Long. corp. 4 lin.

Caput fronte medio leviter uniimpressa. Thorax profunde longitudi- naliter canaliculars, lateribus fortiter depressus. Elytra in regione media depressa apicem versus parum dilatata, striato -punctata, ad striam 2m punctis 2 majoribus subapicalibus, cum thorace marginata.

Specimen singulum m. prope Colombo nocte ad. lumen cepi.

The characteristics of this new genus, are those of the g. Calleida excepting the ligula which in this case is obtusely acuminated, the last joint of the maxill. palpi which is obtuse at the apex, and the thorax, which is not as in Calleida longer than broad, but the reverse. From Cyminclis it would differ principally in the deeply bilobed fourth tarsal joint, and in some other minor points, but it is difficult to say what the true characteristics of this genus are, if even Lacordaire uses the particle "ou" not less than five times in the diag- nosis he gives of it in his g. d. Col. It would also appear to be allied to Plochionus, differing from this g., however, in the obtuse extremity of the terminal joint of the maxill


Descriptions of New

palpi, and the deeply bilobcd fourth tarsal joint. However, if Lacordaire's diagonses are exact, I feel justified in sepa- rating Anchista from all these genera. The name "Anchista" has reference to the affinity of the insect to the two genera just mentioned, whilst the specific name u modesta," refers to its inconspicuous colours. Amongst its peculiarities weight ought to be laid upon the plumpness of the palpi, in fact all other parts of the mouth and even the whole head, which w^as very striking to me.

Like many of my best Carabida^ I found this insect at night on the table -whither it had been attracted by the light. The anterior tarsi are dilated and furnished with hairy brushes below, longest at the apex of the lobes of the fourth joint.

II. Elliotia. iu g% JsT. (fam. Carabim;, trib. Lebill\£.)

Corpus subconvexuin, ovatuni. Caput mediocre, oculis maximis. Mentnm leviter transversim ©marginatum, edeutatum, lobis acuininatis< Ligula submembranacea apice truncata, paraglossia connatis inargineni anteriorem parum superantibus, obtusis. Palpi elongati, art. ultimo elliptico, acuminato. Labrum magnum transversum, integrum, mandi- bulas fere obtegens. Mandibular validse, edentatse. Antennse robustse fili- formes, bumeros superantes, art. mediocri, brevi, 3<> quinti prope longitudine, prsecedente breviore, 2-4 obconicis, 5-10 asqualibus, cylindricis, 11° pra?cedente tertia parte longiore, 4-11 pilosis. Thorax parvus, capite minor, transversus, longitudine duplo latior ; antice leviter emarginatus, lateribus elevato-marginatus, ante medium lateribus ro= tundatus, medio fortiter angulatus, infra medium valde abrupteque angustatus, basi truncatus, subtus cylindricus. Scutellum leviter excavatum. Elytra ovata, marginata, apice sat fortiter truncata. Pedes omnes subarquales, simplices, tenues, tarsis cylindricis art. 3-4 magis minusve trigonis, unguibus simplicibus. Prosternum carinatum,

In honorem Dom. Hon. Walteri Ellioti (Maderaspatani), naturalists diligentissimi, meritissimi, nomen imposui.

0. Elliotia pallipes. N.

E. supra nigra, nitida, thoracc scutelloque rufo-testaceis, labro elytr- orumquc limbo atque sutura brunneo-tcstaccis ; subtus piceus, pcctorc

Ceylon Coltopteras 8fc. 15

fufo-testaceo, pedibus albidis, his geniculis oreque (palpis obseurioribus exceptis) testaceis. Long. corp. 2^ lin.

Caput ad antennaruni insertionem et inter oculos utrinque profunde iinpressnm. Thorax basi rugosus, ante medium utrinque uni-impressus? linea media longitudinali divisus. Elytra punctato-striata, infra humeros leviter impressa.

In ripis lacus Colombensis sub veget. putrescent, mens. Jul. non infrequenter legi. Agilis est et avolare semper expeditus.

A pretty and very interesting little insect, about whose systematic position I am not quite satisfied, however I pro- visionally place it towards the end of the true Lebiida3. I find it most to agree with the descriptions of the g. Penta- gonica S. Gr. and Rhombodera R. with neither of which, however, it is identical. The head is distinguished by the large and prominent eyes, and four deep impressions, two larger ones at the root of the antenna?, two smaller ones between the eyes, also byr a very distinct neck which connects it with the thorax; the labrum is large, transverse and entire, with the angles rounded off and the base narrowed; the mentum is but slightly transversely emarginated, edentate ; the ligula is trun- cated at the tip, the paragiossre adhere to it, reach a little be- yond it, and are obtuse at the apex; the palpi are rather long with the last joint elliptic, acuminate; the antenna? are strong, filiform, and reach beyond the shoulders, joints 5-10 are of equal length and cylindric, 4-1 1 are pilose. The most re- markable part of the insect is, however, the thorax, which is of a subrhomboidal shape, transverse, smaller than the head, as broad again as long, it has two strong lateral angles at the middle, each furnished with a strong bristle, the anterior part has the sides rounded, the posterior abruptly obliquely contracted, at the base it is cylindric. As a specific distine- * tion of the thorax, I mention, moreover, that in the present species it is impressed with two deep punctures before the mid- dle and that it is rugose at the case. The abdomen is slightly

16 Descriptions of Neib

peduncled. The scutellum is slightly excavated. Tl\e elytra are oval, rather convex and impressed with rows of punctures. The legs are simple and weak, apparently equal in both sexes. The anterior tarsi are a little stouter than the rest, but not dilated nor furnished with any additional clothing below, the anterior tibia} are deeply notched. As to the colour: the head and wing covers are black, the latter with the suture and margin of a light brown and highly polished, the thorax is reddish, and the legs are whitish. The insect is very agile, and ever ready to take to its wings. It is of quite a peculiar appearance, imparted to it by its large eyes, small curiously shaped thorax and rather plump elytra and abdomen. I may further mention, that I have observed the fourth joint of the maxillary palpi to collapse when the speci- mens become quite dry, so as to give them a different, spoon- like appearance, apt to mislead any one who has not examined fresh specimens.

10. TRiCfiOPTEKYX cursitans. K.

T. ovata, subconvexa, pubescens, supra obscure senea, elytris seneo* brunneis, subtus picea, pedibus oreque testaceis, antennis art. 3-11 ni- grescentibus. Long. corp. 2/5 tin.

Antennarum clava art. 2 primis ovatis, ultimo conico, acuminato. Thorax amplissimus, elytris tertia parte minor, convexus, angiitis acutis, basi humeros amplectens, apice angustatus. Elytra subdepressa, sub- quadrata, apicem versus parum angustata, truncata, abdomine multo breviora. Tibiae medio incrassata3. Coxae posticae maxime 'dilatatse. Mesosternum carinatum.

Sub veget. putrescent, exsiccescentibus in prov. occid. copiosa.

A rather large species, commonly met with in this part of the Island, under rotting vegetable substances somewhat dried up. It is very agile and ready to take to its wings, which are of the beautiful typical construction, about twice the length of the body, and in dead specimens frequently produced

Ceylon Coleoptera, Sfc.


behind. These insects vary a little as to shape, some being more narrowed behind than others, and also as to the exact number of the abdominal segments left uncovered by the ely- tra, generally three or four. The head is large, but exhibits nothing abnormal or extraordinary ; the thorax is very large, emarginated in front and behind, with the angles acute, the basal ones enveloping the shoulders; the wing-covers are subquadratic, with the angles rounded off and a little narrow- ed behind ; the legs have the tibiae incrassated in the middle, and the posterior coxa3 very much dilated and distant from each other ; in all other respects they are typical. The shape of the body is that of an egg, broadest at the shoulders, gently narrowed towards the apex of the abdomen, and round- ed off towards the head.

11. Teichopteryx immatura. iST.

T. praBcedenti similis, dhTert tamen colore supra ameo-testacea, subtus testacea, antennarum art. 3-11 nigrescentibus ; differt etiam corpore ro- bustiore, magis quadrato, capite paulo rnajore, thorace minus convexo, parum ampliore, ely tris abdomen totum vel fere totum obtegentiis. Pedes, antennae etc. ornnino praecedentis. Long. corp. ^ lin.

In prsecedentis societate specimina nonnulla legi.

Of somewhat the appearance of an immature individual of the former, but sufficiently distinct to be formed into a new species. The insect is altogether of a different appearance, imparted to it by the greater general plumpness of the body, the larger head, the less convex, but at the same time, pos- sibly still ampler thorax, the altogether more quadratic shape, etc. The remark regarding? the exact number of abdominal segments, left uncovered by the elytra, applies to this and all other species as well. The present one has generally the last two segments uncovered*

12. Teichopteryx invisibilis. ST,

T. ovata, subdepressa, subparallela, pilosa, supra obscure senea, subtus 1857* p


Descriptions of New

picea, peJibus, aLdoiiiine, antennis oreque testaceis. Long. corp. vix 1/5 lin.

Thorax ampins, elytris sesqui minor, convexus, angulis posticis liumeros vix superantibus. Elytra oblonge quadrata, angulis rotundatis, sub- depressa, truncata, abdomen totum vel fere totum obtegentia. Coxge pos- ticse approximate. Tarsi typicis minus elongati, art. prascedentibus baud multo longiore.

Cum T. cursitante vietitat ; frequenter legu

A very pretty and very distinguished species. Its most striking peculiarity consists in the posterior coxae, which are as little distant from each other as thosu of the anterior legs, and almost touch each other, and also in the shortness of the tarsi. The head with the antenna?, the mesosternuin, the tibiae, which are incrassated in the middle, the posterior coxae, with regard to the enlargement, are quite typical. However, the thorax and elytra differ again from those of T. cursitans, (which in every respect may be looked upon as the typical representative of the family in Ceylon, and which is here re- ferred to as such) the former by the shortness of the posterior angles, which can hardly be said to envelope the shoulders, the elytra by being less or not at all narrowed behind, giving an oblong rather than an oval shape to the insect* Although in length only about one half shorter, it is in bulk certainly one fourth smaller than T. cursitans, and, although probably the smallest Ceylon beetle, it is distinguished at first sight.

13. Ptilium subquadratum. N.

P. subquadratum, subconvexum, pilosum, obscure aeneo-testaceuni, tliorace dilutiore. Long, corp \ lin.

Caput mediocre. Antennarum clava art. inverte conico, sub- cylindrico, ultimo elongato-ovato. Thorax convexus, angulis basalibus liumeros fortissime amplectentibus, apicem versus valde rotundatus, apice leviter sinuatus. Elytra quadrata, abdomen non totum obtegentia. Scutellum parvum. Pedes robusti tibiis apicem versus incrassatis, tarsis art. primi secundique longitudine, his subbilobis subtus penicillatus^ coxis posticis simplicibus distantibus. Mesosternum non carinatum.

Ceylon Coleoptera, §-c.


Ubi praecedentes sed infrequenter occurrit.

The g. Ptilium is the repository for all the anomalies of the family, its characteristics therefore are very vague ; but if the absence of the mesosternal carina and the simplicity of the posterior coxa?, are the determining features amongst them, the present species, in spite of a variety of anomalies it exhibits in other respects, belongs to it. The head is of middling size ; the antennae robust with the first joint of the club of the shape of an inverted cone, the second rather cylindrical, narrowed at the base, and the last elongate, ovate. The thorax is of very different structure from that of the foregoing species of the family, the basal angles being unusually far produced beyond the shoulders, towards the head it is strongly and rapidly rounded off, being thus altogether of a semicircular shape, at the appex it is merely slightly sinuated, and the head is inserted rather below than in this sinuosity, the whole thorax moreover is very convex, whilst the elytra are depressed. The wings vary from the typical form by being fringed with short simple cilia, instead of those long feathery appendages ; they are moreover without a distinct peduncle, but still folded in the manner characteristic of the family. The legs are stout with the tibiee thickest at the tip, the third tarsal joint is of the length of the preceding two, the latter are somewhat bilobed and hairy below. The posterior coxa? are simple and distant. The mesosternum without a carina. The whole shape of the insect is quadratic rather than otherwise.

14. Ptenidium macrocephalum. N.

P. ellipticuni, subccmvexum, nitidum, sparsim pilosum, supra piceo- seneum, subtus piceum pebibus oreque testaceis. Long. corp. \ lin.

Caput maximum. Antennarum clava elongata articulis ellipticis. Thorax subquadratus antice posticeque angustatus, basi punctis 4 magnis profunde impressus. Elytra ovata, medium versus leviter inflate, apice obtuse acuminata, abdomine longiora et ampliora. puno'tiilis lineis dispo-


Descriptions of New

sitis obsoletissiinis impressa. Alee corpore plus duplo longiores. Tibia? fortiores spinuloses. Tarsi breviores. Prosternum carinatum. In praecedentium societate frequenter lectum.

This is perhaps the prettiest of the five species of the family just described^ and at first sight recognised by the shape of its body and the polished back. The head is very large. The thorax is narrowed in front and behind, at the latter place impressed with four deep not to be overlooked punctures. The wing-covers are oval, a little inflated about the middle, rounded at the apex and longer and wider than the abdomen. The prosternum is carinated.

It affords me much gratification to be enabled to publish representatives of three genera of this highly interesting and probably very extensive and widely distributed family of pygmies, the South Asiatic representatives of which have hitherto been entirely unknown. I have no doubt that even this Island is the abode of a great many more species.

15. Stenus barbatus. K

S. elongatus, ameo-niger, nitidus, punctatus, sparsim pubescens, pedibus palpisque albidis, ore coxisque testaceisa antennis brunnescentibus. Long. corp. 2| lin.

Caput thorace tertia parte latius, fronte costis 3 abbreviatis, antice albido-pubescens. Antennas art. 3o sequentium 2 fere longitudine, 3 ultimis elongatis, ellipticis. Palpi max. elongati apice densius pubes- centes. Thorax cylindricus medio leviter incrassatus, basi subquadratus. Elytra thorace paulo longiora, sed fere duplo latiora, convexa, ovata. Abdomen immarginatum. Pedes elongati tenues, tibiis apice tarsisque fortiter setosis, his art. 4<> profunde bilobo.

In lacus Colomb. ripis specimina nonulla legi.

This as well as the following species belongs to Erichson's division II. B. of the g., both having the abdomen immarginate and the 4th tarsal joint bilobed. Every thing about this species is elongated. The head is about one third broader than the thorax, the forehead is slightly excavated with two

Ceylon Coleoptera, fyc.